Scientists say they have developed a means of accurately dating Earth’s oldest and densest polar ice by analyzing the composition of krypton gas trapped within ancient air bubbles. Advertisement “The oldest ice found in drilled cores is around , years old, and with this new technique we think we can look in other regions and successfully date polar ice back as far as 1. Potential uses, Buizert and his colleagues say, are dating meteorites recovered in Antarctic ice, and studying the Earth’s climate and its cycle of ice ages. Krypton is a noble gas that is present in the atmosphere at extremely low levels, or about one part per million. In the upper atmosphere, exposure to cosmic rays can transform a stable krypton isotope into a slow-decaying radioactive isotope. Using krypton to gauge the age of ancient ice Scientists say that air bubbles in polar ice will contain some of these radioisotopes. By comparing the radioisotope’s state of decay to stable krypton isotopes, researchers can determine how long the gas has been trapped in the ice. That’s essentially how scientists use carbon techniques to date ice, but that method is only accurate back to about 50, years.
Climate History & the Cryosphere
Evidence continues to mount that some type of warming is occurring, maybe temporarily or of longer duration. But, is it caused by man and can anything be done about it? Environmental activism to reduce carbon dioxide emissions has reached a new intensity. Supreme Court is being asked to rule on a suit which demands that the Environmental Protection Agency regulate the release of carbon dioxide as part of its air pollution responsibility.
The president is being heavily lobbied to subscribe to the Kyoto Protocol which would require the U. A book and a movie with the titles, An Inconvenient Truth, which press the case for global warming were released during by Al Gore, former vice president of the United States.
C14 dating has been calibrated against more than 10, years of tree ring data and more than that of ice core data and it now even adjusts for variations in solar activity over the .
The sun, moon, and stars 2. The fish and the birds 3. The fertile earth 6. The land animals and humans 7. Rest and satisfaction In light of these correspondences, Kline interprets days one and four as different perspectives on the same event, and likewise days two and five, and three and six. He concludes that while the creation account is historical, historicity and narrative sequence are not the same thing, so the account need not—indeed, should not—be read as chronological at all.
And, of course, this nicely addresses Origen’s observation that days one, two and three could not be literal days before the sun, moon and stars existed to mark them and it also obviates the anachronistic modern question, relevant to all six days if they are literal, of the time zone by which God measured his evenings and mornings Garden of Eden Standard Time? Of course, Kline’s interpretation can be disputed.
For instance, Collins , while recognizing the validity of the parallel structure in the days of creation and appreciating the implication that the precise lengths of time involved and the precise historical ordering of events was not the author’s focus and is not a matter of deep biblical importance, nonetheless resists Kline’s effort to condense the divine “workweek” into three days told from two different perspectives rather than six.
The fourth commandment in Exodus Furthermore, use of the Hebrew wayyiqtol verb form is prevalent in Genesis 1 and, since its ordinary narrative use is to indicate sequential events Collins , the implication seems to be that some sort of sequence—whether logico-metaphysical, teleological, or chronological—is intrinsic to the author’s portrayal. Adopting this viewpoint, however, leaves Collins with the problem of interpreting how the fourth day of creation fits into this sequence.
He resolves it by noting that when God says “Let there be yehi lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night.
Climate Data Information
Hide Scientists take samples from the center of the coral. Paleoclimatology is the study of past climates. Since it is not possible to go back in time to see what climates were like, scientists use imprints created during past climate, known as proxies, to interpret paleoclimate. Organisms, such as diatoms, forams, and coral serve as useful climate proxies.
Other proxies include ice cores, tree rings, and sediment cores which include diatoms, foraminifera, microbiota, pollen, and charcoal within the sediment and the sediment itself.
Ice cores have been extracted from many locations around the world, primarily in Greenland and Antarctica. One of the deepest cores ever drilled was at the Vostok station in Antarctica, which includes ice dating back to over , years ago.
Particularly in the polar region, but also at high elevations elsewhere, snow falls on an annual cycle and remains permanently. Over time, a few decades, the layers of snow compact under their own weight and become ice. By drilling through that ice, and recovering cylinders of it, it is possible to reconstruct records of temperature and of atmospheric gases for periods of hundreds of thousands of years. Technologically the recovery of ice cores and their analysis is an amazing feat.
Secondly, to analyse the content of the air bubbles, and determine not only the proportion of different gases but also the proportion of specific isotopes of those gases is also technologically challenging. Whilst ice cores allow direct measurement of atmospheric gases, like CO2 and Methane, some care is needed in interpreting the results.
This is because of the fact that, while the snow is being compressed into ice, gas transfer may occur between the atmosphere and the layers of ice. Because the gases in the atmosphere are mixed and decay over time this adds another element of uncertainty. In effect, the data represent the average over a period of time, which can be several decades; a corollary of this is that data calculated from ice cores, for temperature of CO2 for example, will have less variation than the measured record.
Orbital tuning refers to calibrating the times against the Milankovitch cycles and the associated changes in radiation Figure 1.
Radiometric Dating is Accurate
The Earth’s Climatic History on Ice Paleoclimatologists are concerned with the cycle of glacials and interglacials that have occurred throughout Earth’s history. The variety of factors contributing to the climatic system results in complexities that are difficult to unravel. Ice core geochemistry has been instrumental in the quest for an understanding of Earth’s climatic past. Researcher Mary Davis examines a thick layer of dust inside an ice core taken from Mt.
Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, Africa. The dust layer signifies a major drought event that struck the region in the past.
How are ice cores dated? I was wondering how ice cores are dated accurately. I know Carbon 14 is one method, but some ice cores go back hundreds of thousands of years. Other ways of dating ice cores include geochemisty, wiggle matching of ice core records to insolation time series (Lemieux-Dudon et al. ), layers of volcanic ash (tephra.
This is the case for areas in north-eastern Greenland where the annual precipitation rate is significantly lower than 20 cm. For ice cores drilled in areas with about or slightly more than 20 cm of precipitation, diffusion will also blur the annual cycles, but it is possible to retrieve the annual cycle using diffusion correction techniques.
Very slow diffusive processes also take place deeper in the ice sheets. The curves on the figure below illustrate the effect of diffusion. The three sections each show about 26 years of data years apart the sections are from , , and b2k, “b2k” meaning “years before A. It is seen how the amplitude of the annual peaks is reduced for the older sections, and how neighbouring peaks begin to merge in the oldest section. The above figures show how the annual peaks are dampened from b2k to b2k in the DYE-3 ice core b2k is a short for before A.
Grey bars mark winter minima.
Science, Scripture, & Salvation
Several Christian ministries promote the idea that the earth is less than 10, years old, which they say comes from the Bible. In reality, the Bible makes no claim as to the age of the earth, although it does establish a minimum age. This page examines some of the history of the controversy—what the Bible actually says and does not say—and the scientific evidence surrounding the age of the earth.
Age of the earth according to the Bible The following is a summary of the biblical evidence presented on this website regarding the age of the earth.
THE ICE CORE ICE CORE ICE CORE ICE CORE DATING An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet, most commonly from the polar ice caps of Antarctica, Greenland or from high mountain glaciers elsewhere.
Moreover, these methods provide largely consistent results for the ages of various rock strata throughout the geologic column, which correlate well with non-radiometric dating methods, including including cores, varves, dendrochronology, and others Brinkman, ; Deem, ; Duff, ; Webb, ; Young, , In contrast, most YECs claim the Earth, and indeed the entire universe, is only 6, to 10, year old universe and earth.
They cite a number of processes that supposedly support this, but these have been well refuted Strahler, ; Stassen, ; Stoner, Many YEC authors also frequently point to alleged flaws in radiometric dating methods, but have had difficulty explaining the overall sloping patterns they produce from stratigraphically lower to higher samples, and the largely consistent correlations among many radiometric and non-radiometric dating methods.
Although the authors declared the RATE project a success, when fully understood, it is seen to be an abject failure, and further confirmation of an ancient Earth. Second, the authors raised a number of alleged problems for mainstream dating, such as Po halos and helium defusion rates, which have been well refuted Kuban, ; Loechelt, a, b; Zweerink, Third, and most important, the RATE authors acknowledge that the amount of radioactive decay recorded in the geologic record is far greater than a YEC time frame can accommodate.
One might think that they would then accept the logical conclusion that the Earth is old, or at least question their YEC views. Instead, they astoundingly claim that the results actually support their view. In order to do that, they proposed that nuclear decay rates were vastly accelerated during or soon after the “creation week” by some divine providential process translation: Even more problematic, if such acceleration had occurred, it would not generate more than enough heat to vaporize the entire earth.
But that too did not deter the authors from their mission of supporting YECism. They then proposed more unspecified, ad-hoc, extra-Biblical miracles protect the Earth and all living things from the immense heat. They never explained why God would do either, since the only effect of accelerating decay rates would be to make the Earth old and generate lethal heat.
I have reproduced the article here so that I can respond to it in context. First of all, thank you for the link to it. Before I begin, I want to mention that the dating and the article are done with the presupposition of both long ages and not only uniformitarianism but gradualism. Understanding that I do not accept these presuppositions and will be looking at the evidence presented from the standpoint of recent creation and catastrophic interruptions in history, I will approach the article from a “devil’s advocate” point of view as far as evolutionists are concerned.
Some types of relative dating techniques include climate chronology, dendrochronology, ice core sampling, stratigraphy, and seriation. Seriation uses the assumption that once a tool was developed, its use would become more widespread.
Even many Christians see creationism as a nice story, a “myth” to illustrate a philosophy, but is not factual history. Then there are many forms of creationism, young earth creationism, old earth creationism, theistic evolution creationism, etc. Both Christianity, Judaism, Islam and a number of smaller religions believe in a creation record, which all adds up to a large percentage of the world’s population that believe some form of creationism. The validity of Christian creationism, and the accuracy of the Biblical creation record must hinge on creditable demonstrations that the creation record is true and recent scientific and archaeological discoveries demonstrate this creationism validity and accuracy.
Much depends upon proper translation and interpretation of the Masoretic Hebrew text of the creation story. And demonstrating how the Biblical creation narrative is in accord with the latest scientific discoveries concerning the universe its size, shape and beginnings. Also the latest discoveries of archaeology, DNA genetic classifications and the proposed theories concerning how this solar system and the planet Earth began, formed and changed over time.
Young earth creation theories are shown to be invalid by many scientific physical evidences that prove that the earth is indeed very old and how the old earth interpetation of creationism as described in Genesis chapters one through eleven and various other Biblical Scriptures accurately describe the progressive development of the earth from a dark and empty planet to one abundantly populated by many life forms requiring solar energy.
The climax being the creation of final human life form which happened about 15, years ago and how the offspring of farmer Adam spread over the surface of the planet and developed their farming, building, learning and scientific capabilities. We also present a New Perspectives translation of Genesis chapters 1- 11 to help in knowing its accuracy as follows.
Lake Suigetsu and the 60,000 Year Varve Chronology
One place were varves have been studied for decades is below a deep lake in Japan: Though a well-worn example, this recent work pushing the varve chronology to close to 60, year bears reviewing in light of how YECs have responded in the past to this challenging data. An aerial map of Lake Suigetsu in Japan showing that it is part of a series of lakes.
These formed as the result of large volcanic explosions. This image is a web site that documents the research on the varves from this location: Lake Suigetsu fits those requirements exceptionally well.
All ice core “dates” are derived by calibrating the various methods to the Uniformitarian theoretical system. When calibrated to the Creation theoretical system the dates derived agree with time of the Biblical flood. Revisions. In , the North Greenland Ice Core Project uncovered the remains of plants in an ice core of Greenland.
An ice age implies extreme snowfall which, in turn, requires cold temperatures and heavy precipitation. Heavy precipitation can occur only if oceans are warm enough to produce heavy evaporation. How could warm oceans exist with cold atmospheric temperatures? Another problem is stopping an ice age once it begins—or beginning a new ice age after one ends. Eventually, the entire globe should freeze permanently.
Conversely, if glaciers shrink, as they have in recent decades, the earth should reflect less heat into space, warm up, and eventually melt all glaciers. Yes, layers can be seen in ice cores extracted from deep in glaciers in Antarctica and Greenland, but less than 2, annual layers can be counted visually for a very simple reason. The weight of the overlying layers have compressed all the layers below.
They are now so thin that the eye can no longer count them.
The Best CMS
What is relative dating? Relative dating is used to determine the relative ages of geologic strata, artifacts, historical events, etc. This technique does not give specific ages to items. It only sequences the age of things or determines if something is older or younger than other things. Some types of relative dating techniques include climate chronology, dendrochronology, ice core sampling, stratigraphy, and seriation.
Diffusion: The limit to δ 18 O-based ice core dating Snow is slowly compressed into ice in the upper 80 meters of an ice sheet (read more about the process here). During this process, water vapour can move relative to the ice in the open pores between the snow grains, thereby smoothing the annual δ .
Alternating patterns of distinct laminae are commonly identified within glacial lake deposits and are generally interpreted in the following way: However, there is actually no empirical evidence to back the claim that varves form as annual deposits over extended periods of time. It appears then, that claiming a varve is an annual event is an assumption in itself; one steeped in uniformitarian thought, but not reality.
Geologists have known for quite some time that multiple laminae may form very rapidly. French creation scientist Guy Berthault performed groundbreaking laboratory experiments demonstrating that multiple laminations can form spontaneously when sediment mixtures consisting of particles of different sizes are deposited in air, running water, or still water. This occurs because particles of different sizes have a tendency to spontaneously segregate and stratify themselves.